Once again, a 1993 agreement, negotiated by Russia, the ceasefire agreement in Abkhazia and a mechanism to ensure compliance, allowed a moratorium on the use of force, the withdrawal of belligerents from the war zone within a fortnight, the creation of a Russian-Abkhaz control group to monitor the ceasefire, the return of the Abkhaz Parliament to Sumiouk , UN observers on the territory, and the resumption of talks on the settlement of the dispute. In August of the same year, UNMOT was deployed as a United Nations monitoring force. The ceasefire was violated on 27 September when Abkhazian troops conquered Sukhumi and proclaimed victory. Pro-Georgian forces then withdrew to Tbilisi when Georgia joined the CIS and changed Russia`s attitude towards Georgia on this issue. On 6 and 7 March 2003, Georgian President Edouard Cheverdnadze and Russian President Vladimir Putin again signed an agreement to turn the economy around, restore rail networks and attract international investment. This would result in disappointment, especially for Georgians.   These roads have not been active since 2014, but have become viable again after the russian-backed government and Iran recaptured Aleppo in December 2016. These roads would help restore trade between neighbouring Turkey and the territories held by the regime. The document states that these measures are a means of “guaranteeing the free movement of residents and goods and restoring trade and economic relations.” Both the Assad government and Iran welcomed Tuesday`s agreement. The document, obtained exclusively by The National, lists a 10-point plan to avoid an offensive in the northwestern province of Syria. In addition to the demilitarized zone, which would be “15-20 km deep in the de-escalation zone,” the document acknowledges the Iranian-Russian-Turkish Coordination Centre as a role in the implementation of the ceasefire. The centre was created as part of Astana discussions.
The document also explains that transit traffic “will be restored on the M4 (Aleppo-Latakia) and M5 (Aleppo-Hama) lines by the end of 2018.” The document has already been forwarded to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres and current Security Council President Nikki Haley, the Permanent Representative of the United States to the United Nations. In 2003, Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Georgian President Shevardnadze and Abkhazian Prime Minister Gennadi Gagulia and launched a Sochi process to establish a Georgian-Russian-Abkhaz working group on confidence-building measures (CBM).